Tasa de crecimiento del consumo energético de China.
El consumo energético global experimentó un crecimiento significativo en 2018, propiciado por el crecimiento económico sostenido y por el aumento de la demanda en China, el mayor consumidor de energía del mundo desde 2009. El consumo energético de China registró su mayor crecimiento desde 2012, propiciado principalmente por la generación de electricidad, por la fuerte demanda industrial y por el aumento del consumo de combustibles para el trasporte, motivado por el crecimiento del parque móvil.
El consumo energético total de los Estados Unidos alcanzó un máximo histórico de 2,3 Gtep en 2018 (lo que supone un aumento del 3,5 % respecto de 2017), propiciado parcialmente por las condiciones climáticas (verano caluroso e invierno frío).
Por el contrario, el consumo energético disminuyó en la Unión Europea (-1 %), y en especial en Alemania (-3,5 %), en parte debido al descenso del consumo en el sector eléctrico, a un invierno más suave, a la reducción del consumo y a las mejoras en la eficiencia energética.
According to the Central Electricity Authority of India, electricity consumption increased by only 1.1% in 2019, its slowest annual pace since 2013. In December 2019, electricity consumption declined for the fifth month in a row, reaching 100.8 TWh (-0.5% compared with December 2018), despite a rise in consumption in the industrialised states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Electricity consumption had fallen by 13% in October 2019 (compared to October 2018), its steepest drop in 12 years, reflecting a slowdown in industrial consumption. In October 2019, the IMF lowered its growth forecast for India by 0.9 point to 6.1% in 2019.
According to preliminary data from the General Administration of Customs, China’s energy imports continued to increase in 2019. Crude oil imports rose by 9.5% to nearly 506 Mt (10.1 mb/d), as two 400,000 bbl/d refineries commissioned in 2019 – Hengli Petrochemical in Dalian (northeast China) and Zhejiang Petroleum and Chemical in Zhoushan (eastern China) – are fostering China’s crude oil demand. Meanwhile, imports of petroleum products declined by 8.7% in 2019 to 31 Mt, and that of fuel oil by nearly 11% to less than 15 Mt. Natural gas imports continued to grow in 2019 (+6.9%), as China is seeking to raise the share of gas in its energy mix. Coal and lignite imports increased again (+6.3%), reaching 300 Mt.
According to the Unified Energy System (SO UPS) of Russia, which manages seven power systems in Russia (all Russia excepted northern islands and isolated systems in north-eastern Siberia), power generation in the unified energy system increased by 0.9% in 2019 to 1,080 TWh, while electricity consumption hiked by 0.4% in 2019 to 1,059 TWh. Mos of the demand was covered by thermal power generation (617 TWh, -0.5% compared to 2018). Hydropower generation rose by 3.6% to 190 TWh and nuclear generation by 2.2% to 209 TWh. Captive power plants (industrial power plants generating electricity for their own consumption) also raised their production level (+2.1% to 63 TWh).
According to the government of India, installed renewable power capacity in India crossed the 84 GW threshold in December 2019 (84.4 GW), with wind power capacity reaching 37,280 MW, solar capacity 32,530 MW, biomass capacity 9,940 MW and small hydropower capacity 4,650 MW. In addition, another 36.7 GW is already under implementation (25 GW of solar, 9.6 GW of wind power, 1.4 GW of wind-solar hybrid and 550 MW of small hydro) and 29.6 GW is being tendered (including 25.8 GW of solar and 2.2 GW of wind). Overall, the installed and under development capacity could exceed 150 GW, with more than 83 GW of solar power, 49 GW of wind power and 10 GW of biomass.