Aumento de la cuota de renovables en la oferta energética de Reino Unido entre 2000 y 2018.
La cuota de fuentes de energía renovables (FER, incluida la energía hidroeléctrica) en el conjunto de energías generadas en todo el mundo, que ha experimentado un rápido aumento desde finales de 2000, creció en casi 1 punto porcentual (+0,8 ptos.) en 2018, aproximándose así al 26 %.
La mayor parte del crecimiento procede de la nueva capacidad eólica y solar, respaldada por ambiciosas políticas climáticas en la Unión Europea, los Estados Unidos, China, la India, Japón y Australia, así como por una drástica caída de los costes de desarrollo de la energía eólica y solar en los últimos años, lo que ha permitido a los países en vías de desarrollo ampliar su base de capacidad de renovables. Las condiciones hidrológicas favorables propiciaron un aumento de la generación de energías renovables en Europa, Brasil, la India, Tailandia, Australia y Nueva Zelanda.
Las energías renovables ahora cubren un 36 % de la oferta de energías en Europa, un 26 % en China y alrededor del 18 % en los Estados Unidos, la India y Japón.
According to the Central Electricity Authority of India, electricity consumption increased by only 1.1% in 2019, its slowest annual pace since 2013. In December 2019, electricity consumption declined for the fifth month in a row, reaching 100.8 TWh (-0.5% compared with December 2018), despite a rise in consumption in the industrialised states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. Electricity consumption had fallen by 13% in October 2019 (compared to October 2018), its steepest drop in 12 years, reflecting a slowdown in industrial consumption. In October 2019, the IMF lowered its growth forecast for India by 0.9 point to 6.1% in 2019.
According to preliminary data from the General Administration of Customs, China’s energy imports continued to increase in 2019. Crude oil imports rose by 9.5% to nearly 506 Mt (10.1 mb/d), as two 400,000 bbl/d refineries commissioned in 2019 – Hengli Petrochemical in Dalian (northeast China) and Zhejiang Petroleum and Chemical in Zhoushan (eastern China) – are fostering China’s crude oil demand. Meanwhile, imports of petroleum products declined by 8.7% in 2019 to 31 Mt, and that of fuel oil by nearly 11% to less than 15 Mt. Natural gas imports continued to grow in 2019 (+6.9%), as China is seeking to raise the share of gas in its energy mix. Coal and lignite imports increased again (+6.3%), reaching 300 Mt.
According to the Unified Energy System (SO UPS) of Russia, which manages seven power systems in Russia (all Russia excepted northern islands and isolated systems in north-eastern Siberia), power generation in the unified energy system increased by 0.9% in 2019 to 1,080 TWh, while electricity consumption hiked by 0.4% in 2019 to 1,059 TWh. Mos of the demand was covered by thermal power generation (617 TWh, -0.5% compared to 2018). Hydropower generation rose by 3.6% to 190 TWh and nuclear generation by 2.2% to 209 TWh. Captive power plants (industrial power plants generating electricity for their own consumption) also raised their production level (+2.1% to 63 TWh).
According to the government of India, installed renewable power capacity in India crossed the 84 GW threshold in December 2019 (84.4 GW), with wind power capacity reaching 37,280 MW, solar capacity 32,530 MW, biomass capacity 9,940 MW and small hydropower capacity 4,650 MW. In addition, another 36.7 GW is already under implementation (25 GW of solar, 9.6 GW of wind power, 1.4 GW of wind-solar hybrid and 550 MW of small hydro) and 29.6 GW is being tendered (including 25.8 GW of solar and 2.2 GW of wind). Overall, the installed and under development capacity could exceed 150 GW, with more than 83 GW of solar power, 49 GW of wind power and 10 GW of biomass.